It’s 10 PM. Do You Know The place Your Cat Is?

It’s 10 PM. Do You Know The place Your Cat Is?

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Within the early months of the coronavirus lockdowns, my spouse shared with me a each day dose of cat movies. By shared, in fact, I imply she flipped the display of her cellphone and thrust it at me throughout the desk: “Look!” And for the following 10 minutes, we’d scroll—cat taking a bubble tub, cat robbing a fishmonger, cat taking part in the piano to an viewers of two cats and a canine. One afternoon, as I got here within the door, coated in snow, she greeted me with “Cat Lawyer”—a video of a Texas lawyer caught on kitten filter throughout a courtroom case on Zoom. The snow melted off my hat, everywhere in the cellular display, however we stored watching.

“Cat Lawyer” went viral in February 2021, a 12 months into the pandemic, after we had tried for a number of months to get an precise cat to dwell with us in northern Iceland. Animal shelters have been empty, with a whole lot of disenchanted individuals craving for the consolation and pleasure of a feline pal. Icelandic cat breeders didn’t reply their telephones, and the native veterinary authority cracked down on unlawful kitten sellers for the primary time. Cats have been having the perfect 12 months for the reason that invention of the web—it appeared.

Right this moment, as Icelanders embrace freedom once more, Icelandic cats are preventing for theirs.

In April, Akureyri—the most important municipality within the nation’s north, with a inhabitants of 19,000 individuals and a few 2,000 to three,000 cats—determined to ban their feline residents from night time roaming outdoors. Neighboring Húsavík banned cats a number of years in the past from going open air day and night time. Different Icelandic cities are contemplating bans as the problem of free-roaming cats more and more makes its manner from on-line boards to native politics, with the arguments usually falling into two classes. Some individuals—the “no animals in my yard” or NAIMBY-ists—proclaim free-roaming cats are nuisances that ought to be confined like some other pet. Others suppose past the anthropocentric: cats kill birds and disrupt ecosystems.

Home cats are hardly ever a part of an ecosystem, and regardless of 1000’s of years of domestication, cats nonetheless want their meals at 38 °C—the lukewarm temperature of recent blood. They’re much more much like their ancestors, African wildcats, than canines are to wolves. Their ear flaps, with 32 muscle tissues to rotate, are terribly fast at choosing up high-pitched feels like a mouse’s squeak. Their eyes are monumental on a petite head and modify to accessible gentle just like the aperture of a digicam. Whiskers give them a three-dimensional sense, their sheathed claws guarantee silence, they usually can soar vertically, as much as 5 occasions their very own peak with out effort.

Introduce this elegant murderer to locations the place migratory birds have tailored to a land freed from pure predators and the harm will be irreversible, with some alarming examples worldwide. The Worldwide Union for Conservation of Nature Invasive Species Specialist Group lists cats as one of many 100 worst invasive species on this planet. Their paw prints are everywhere in the scene. Quite a few research have implicated cats within the international extinction of no less than 63 species—40 birds, 21 mammals, two reptiles—and contributed to the endangered standing of one other 587 species. And nowhere do cats, significantly unowned cats, trigger extra harm than on islands: free-roaming cat islanders are linked to no less than 14 p.c of world hen, mammal, and reptile extinctions. In Iceland, a rustic with just one native terrestrial predator, cats have contributed to the dramatic decline of seabirds and have preyed on off-shore hen colonies.

Maybe pandemic fatigue addled my mind, however solely the positives—decrease stress ranges, for one—related to pet possession resonated with our household. By way of a collection of fortunate breaks, we lastly discovered a tabby cat we named Ronja, after the forest-dwelling Astrid Lindgren character. She is lovely however, frankly, a menace to all issues dwelling, and my ankles: at any time when my toes grasp up and about or couch or a chair, Ronja takes it as an invite to assault. Dying first got here on the within. Our houseplants died. Window flies she swallowed complete. As soon as the snow melted, I opened the window. And out she went.

cat in snow

Ronja, the creator’s cat, has the persona of a serial killer. Picture by Egill Bjarnason


In a world the place we divide ourselves into cat individuals or canine individuals, Iceland has historically been the land of cat individuals. Town of Reykjavík banned canines for a lot of the final century, till 1984, primarily based on the concept that they have been cattle. Town’s bourgeoisie cats nap on geothermal-heated sidewalks and befriend world-famous company—in 2011, the New Yorker revealed Haruki Murakami’s quick story “City of Cats,” in all probability impressed by his go to to the Reykjavik Worldwide Literary Pageant, the place he famous the vigorous cat scene. However the felines’ chef-d’œuvre is inducing people into an annual show honoring the facility of cats: every December, town crops a huge metallic cat statue downtown at Lækjartorg sq. reverse the prime minister’s workplace to rejoice the folkloric Yuletide Cat, a monster-sized creature who—within the spirit of Christmas!—torments youngsters and eats them alive, particularly these not carrying new garments for the festivities.

This cat companionship is as previous because the nation itself. The Norse who mastered crusing from northern Europe to this middle-of-nowhere island some 1,150 years in the past possible had cats on board their ships. The primary cat to place its paws on the stony seaside—let’s name him Henry the Viking Cat—had locations to raid. Iceland is, in fundamental geological phrases, a volcanic hotspot turned hen colony turned nation. When cats arrived, together with livestock, the one different terrestrial mammal was the Arctic fox, which had traveled by way of sea ice from Greenland, Russia, or North America in some unspecified time in the future earlier than written information.

Yule Cat statue in Reykjavík, Iceland

Christmas celebrations within the Icelandic metropolis of Reykjavík embody a large cat that’s imply to youngsters. Picture by Arctic Pictures/Alamy Inventory Picture

Few wild animals consciously go for a home life. On the daybreak of agriculture, the cat agreed to kill a number of rodents in change for leftovers and—assuming historical cats have been as somnolent as fashionable cats—locations to nap for 12 to 18 hours of the day. Sure, cats performed social companions to needy people in historical occasions—killing a cat was punishable by dying in historical Egypt—however their function was farm work. And this glorious association lasted, roughly talking, for 10,000 years.

Now we would like them to cease.

Surveys counsel Icelanders’ assist for cat curfews is highest in areas with personal houses and personal gardens. Their reasoning is predominantly idiosyncratic, likening roaming cats to visits from rowdy city drunks. To paraphrase some on-line feedback about cat visitations: “cat urine sprayed the patio,” “challenged one other cat to a 3:00 a.m. duel and killed the yellow daffodils,” “final week he got here into the home, and the pharmacy is out of pet-allergy medicine.” Cat supporters reply alongside the strains of, “Get a life and attempt to tolerate the skin world; cats are a delight and have roamed Iceland so long as now we have.”

The ecological influence seems secondary to public coverage, evident when Húsavík, made well-known by the Netflix comedy Eurovision Music Contest: The Story of Fireplace Saga, grew to become one of many first European cities to impose a complete cat curfew. Again in 2008, the talk started when an area feral—domesticated and unowned—inhabitants grew to become troublesome, maybe as a result of their inhabitants hit a tipping level. Cats get pregnant as early as 4 months previous, with one to 6 kittens per litter. A single feminine can get pregnant thrice a 12 months, and have over 150 descendants inside two years. The rising band of unowned cats in Húsavík started to hang around subsequent to a fish farm by the sting of city, snacking on land-grown char. On the similar time—a cheerful accident for the cats—a geothermal drilling undertaking’s runoff water created a everlasting wetland for coastal birds to nest in. Spring got here, nesting started. Hassle began.

city of Húsavík, Iceland

Town of Húsavík in northern Iceland, recognized for its starring function within the film Eurovision Music Contest: The Story of Fireplace Saga, banned cats from outdoors in 2008. Picture by Della Huff/Alamy Inventory Picture

Research in the USA counsel feral cats trigger some 70 p.c of hen mortality, which is blamed on cats normally. The obvious answer to those Húsavík bandits would have been to cull unowned cats and, additional, ban all felines in rural components of the municipality with the most important nesting websites. That will have upset farmers. As an alternative, native individuals, who appeared to largely oppose cats as nuisance animals, used the chance to impose a cat curfew solely inside city limits.

Menja von Schmalensee, an knowledgeable on invasive species on the West Iceland Nature Analysis Centre, says the continuing cat wars are sometimes primarily based on idiosyncratic preferences, not science. “There are locations the place feral cats ought to completely be banned outdoors, if not cats completely,” she says. “In different areas, such bans are overly drastic. My fear is that every neighborhood will observe the loudest group no matter details.”

All around the nation that very same story echoes—significantly from cliffs the place birds nest.


In 2007, Yann Kolbeinsson, armed with a laptop computer and a digicam mounted on a bendable rod, performed an annual summer time survey of Manx shearwaters on Heimaey, in Iceland’s Westman Islands archipelago. The seabirds are floor nesters on capes and cliffs and spend daytime hours at sea. Kolbeinsson would search for indicators of a nest and push the digicam down a tunnel till it stopped at a burrow.

As he peeked inside, by way of the black-and-white dwell stream of his digicam, Kolbeinsson would write down temporary observations, one after one other. Most days, entries went like this: empty, egg, empty, hen, egg, egg, egg, hen, empty, empty. Sooner or later, he recorded one thing completely new: cat eyes.

4 kittens stared straight into the digicam. A little bit feral household was dwelling in a raided dwelling simply over one kilometer from the island’s settlement of 4,300 individuals.

This was not good.

Westman Islands, Iceland

Seabirds, akin to Manx shearwaters, nest on capes and cliffs in Iceland’s Westman Islands archipelago. Picture by Michal Hykel/Shutterstock

On these 15 dome-shaped islands that make up the Westman Islands, the Manx shearwater created its largest colony in Iceland. A 1990 research indicated a inhabitants of 6,000 breeding pairs, which now seems to be on the decline, although latest analysis is murky. Seabird populations within the area are taking place, however researchers take into account the altering ocean meals internet essentially the most vexing drawback. Nonetheless, in lots of locations, feral cats are exacerbating the decline by attacking and consuming chicks.

Birds nest on offshore colonies exactly to keep away from land predators and take precautions to keep away from larger birds. The storm petrel, as an example, stays out at sea throughout daylight to keep away from assault; cats have night time imaginative and prescient and are energetic at night time, particularly unowned cats. Kolbeinsson factors out that eradicating cats will not be at all times a easy answer since it could in flip make rats and micewhich might assault eggs and chicksextra prevalent.

After which there’s toxoplasmosis, a illness brought on by a parasite few have heard of however many have already got of their our bodies. Whereas the vast majority of human transmissions end result from consuming uncooked meat, cats also can unfold toxoplasmosis. Cats that hunt wild prey (that means indoor cats are harmless) are the one animals able to transmitting the Toxoplasma gondii parasite by way of their feces. Wholesome individuals hardly ever have signs, however the parasite can hurt human fetuses if a mom is contaminated throughout or proper earlier than being pregnant. (Recommendation for cat house owners: clear out the litter field each day. The T. gondii parasite doesn’t change into infectious till one to 5 days after it’s shed.) About 10 p.c of Icelanders have the parasite primarily based on a 2005 research, as do some 40 million Individuals, in response to the Facilities for Illness Management and Prevention.

Toxoplasma gondii oocyst

The Toxoplasma gondii parasite’s sturdy oocysts—eggs—simply journey in recent water and the open ocean. Picture by TGPhoto/Alamy Inventory Picture

Wild and home cats are the one definitive hosts for transmission from the terrestrial surroundings to the marine surroundings; with out them the organism can’t full its life cycle. The parasite’s sturdy oocysts—eggs—simply journey in recent water and the open ocean. Toxoplasmosis infections have killed endangered Hawaiian monk seals and California sea otters. The parasite impacts birds, too, inflicting anorexia, diarrhea, respiratory misery, and presumably dying. A research of 10 species of seabirds within the western Indian Ocean discovered that 17 p.c of them carried antibodies towards toxoplasmosis. The ʻalalā, Hawai‘i’s native crow—which survives in captivity however is extinct within the wild—additionally carries antibodies towards the parasite. It’s doable toxoplasmosis arrived in Hawai‘i with Europeans and their home cats.

Illness apart, it was feral cats’ murderous natures that impressed native exterminator Asmundur Pálsson to behave following Kolbeinsson’s discovery. Pálsson started capturing feral cats and laying traps by the foot of the hen colonies, “all to guard our Manx shearwaters,” he says.

Pálsson killed about 40 animals the primary 12 months however finally gave up: some individuals on the town stored sabotaging his effort by placing rocks within the traps. Two years earlier, Pálsson, armed with a .22-caliber rifle, had worn out invasive bunnies—the European coney, native to France, Spain, and Portugal—however when it got here to cats, animal welfare appeared to outweigh ecological influence.

Which one deserves to die extra? Images by Losonsky/Shutterstock (cat) and Mike Lane/Alamy Inventory Picture (rabbit)

As an alternative, a bunch of volunteers on the island arrange a shelter for feral and stray cats, working towards a way referred to as trap-neuter-release. However cats are solitary hunters that roam giant territories: it takes effort and time to carry a single animal right into a shelter, and it’s virtually not possible to maintain up with inhabitants progress. Plus, as soon as launched again into the wild—now neutered and properly nourished—the cat is similar predator, and all feral cats hunt.

Solitary habits additionally make cats laborious to depend and clarify why international cat inhabitants estimates vary someplace between 500 and 700 million and why estimating the ecological harm of cats has an enormous margin of error. Cats kill between 1.3 and 4 billion birds yearly in the USA alone (excluding Hawai‘i and Alaska). The numbers are primarily based on meta-research pulling big-picture knowledge from beforehand revealed articles estimating the variety of free-roaming cats and their urge for food for birds, akin to by utilizing abdomen and scat evaluation. A Canadian research, making use of an analogous system, estimates that cats kill between two and 7 p.c of birds in southern Canada, the place most residents dwell. The primary-ever research estimating the issue in China, revealed in 2021, blames cats for the annual dying of two.9 billion reptiles, 4 billion birds, and 6.7 billion mammals, on common, along with a staggering variety of invertebrates, frogs, and fishes.

These findings implicate cats as the one biggest supply of anthropogenic mortality for birds—a much bigger risk than window and constructing collisions. Even worse than vehicles and poisoning? The cuddly, cuddly cat.


Why are cats so cuddly to people? They rub towards our legs, lick our noses, and knead our stomachs. It’s as if we’re one other cat to them—and by one principle, that’s what we’re. Cat conduct researcher John Bradshaw claims that cats see people as larger cats. Based mostly on how smaller cats rub on larger cats when dwelling collectively, they in all probability see us as barely superior kitties however relatively clumsy, by cat requirements. Bradshaw, in his e book Cat Sense, rejects the notion that cats carry their prey inside as a present. Cats, relatively, have the tendency to carry prey to a spot the place they really feel protected, however as soon as the feeding begins, they keep in mind—ah, wild meat tastes worse than the chicken-based cat meals within the subsequent room.

Cats kill much more birds than most individuals think about, and their house owners seem to usually maintain the denialism of a guardian unable to just accept their cat as murderous. In a single 2013 research, researchers within the US Southeast affixed “kitty cam” physique cameras to cats to observe their looking: they returned solely 23 p.c of prey to the home. As a cat proprietor, I had assumed the six or seven birds Ronja introduced inside her first summer time was all she had caught. Every time, I used to be shocked, however it took a wounded whimbrel, a shorebird, preventing for its life on the lounge ground for me to just accept the issue. Ronja has the character of a serial killer. About one-third of pet cats, thoughts you, are just like the sketch character Garfield. For the Garfields, looking will not be well worth the effort, or just for the uncommon event. Some breeds are extra harmful than others. However for many cats, both they’ve acquired a killer persona or not: amongst owned cats, solely round 20 p.c are thought of tremendous hunters, so good at their craft {that a} single bell round their neck will do little to kill their ambition.

cat with dead bird lying on floor

Home cats kill between 1.3 and 4 billion birds yearly in the USA alone (excluding Hawai‘i and Alaska). Picture by Rodger Tamblyn/Alamy Inventory Picture

On the pet retailer, the shopkeeper advised me a single bell merely confirmed effort on the proprietor’s half; at greatest a bell the dimensions of a marble reduces the cat’s effectiveness by half, however a number of research counsel subsequent to no impact. Bigger bells work higher however in addition they make noise if the cat is wandering like a Swiss cow round the home at night time, inflicting stress to the hyper-hearing cat. The shopkeeper advised me to attempt a ruffled collar along with a bell. The colourful material collar, resembling that of a clown, is the antithesis of camouflage and makes the cat, no less than within the springtime, 19 occasions much less efficient than an unencumbered cat. Within the fall, nevertheless, the ruffled collars make the cat solely 3.4 occasions much less efficient. And the collars typically fall off. An alternative choice worn across the neck is a protracted, colourful plastic bib. This contraption is a “pounce protector,” stopping cats from decreasing their heads to the bottom. The keto eating regimen is one other doable answer. A managed 2021 research of 355 cats in England discovered that cats on a grain-free, high-meat-protein eating regimen hunted about 40 p.c fewer birds than these consuming the low-end dry meals.

However none of these methods forestall cats from attacking hen nests. Buddies recommended leashing Ronja within the yard. The American Veterinary Medical Affiliation endorses a coverage that encourages cat house owners to restrict out of doors life to out of doors enclosures, akin to cat patios—so-called catiosor to being on an attended leash, efficient if coaching begins when a cat is younger. Icelandic veterinary colleagues have spoken out towards cat curfews. “Though some cats, who have no idea anything, settle for being indoor cats, there are others who don’t deal with it and confinement can result in stress and aggressive conduct,” the Icelandic Veterinary Affiliation wrote in a press release final 12 months. The affiliation does, nevertheless, assist nighttime curfews, particularly within the spring when birds nest, since that’s when cats are simplest as hunters. (Analysis suggests the nocturnal conduct applies extra strongly to unowned cats.)

cat sitting in an enclosed area of a patio

In Húsavík, the place pet cats are banned from being outdoors, a one-year-old named Freddie Mercury enjoys his cat patio—a catio. Picture by Egill Bjarnason

We determined to maintain Ronja inside fully in the course of the nesting season and stopped tolerating her admirable escapes. I purchased plenty of scrumptious fish jerky for treats and advised her that, actually, some indoor cats dwell nearly 4 occasions as lengthy. She placed on extreme weight to show us fallacious.


Now we have at all times liked and loathed cats. The Japanese maneki-neko—the beckoning cat, with one paw raised and “waving”—symbolizes luck; a run-of-the-kitty-mill black cat signifies in poor health fortune. Catholic clergymen burned cats alive in the course of the European witch-hunt period; Islam admires them for cleanliness. Surveys counsel that in components of Iceland about 50 p.c of residents need cats banned from outdoors. The talk itself is new. Folks accepted roaming neighborhood cats, by no means questioning the knowledge, till others started questioning the, pardon the pun, catus quo.

An angle shift is occurring. “The cat curfew has modified the best way individuals consider cats,” says cat proprietor Röðull Reyr, who has lived in Húsavík most of his life. “When a young person sees a cat outdoors at the moment, they seem provoked, as in the event that they’ve noticed an undesirable visitor of their neighborhood.”

In Australia, two municipalities in Melbourne launched cat curfews: Monash in 2021 and Knox in 2022. Earlier, in 2015, the nation launched into a mission to cull two million feral cats. From mid-2015 to mid-2018, Australia killed 844,000 feral cats with poison and traps. In Europe, two Dutch regulation professors, writing in an environmental regulation journal, argued that permitting free-roaming cats violates the Nature Directives, the oldest European Union laws on the surroundings. Citing research of cats’ influence on birds, the authors conclude that cat house owners should handle their free-roaming cats and “stray and feral cats … should be eliminated or managed after they pose a risk to protected species.”

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In Japan, the maneki-neko—the beckoning cat, with one paw raised and “waving”—symbolizes luck. Video by VideoLand/Shutterstock

Final November, the city of Akureyri voted to ban out of doors cats completely as of 2025. Outraged cat supporters everywhere in the nation threatened to boycott the city’s well-known dairy merchandise in protest. An area artist rallied assist for the Cat Get together forward of native elections scheduled this previous Could. So, 4 weeks earlier than election day, the ruling majority softened the whole ban to a nighttime curfew, and the talk retains going, outlined by idiosyncratic fervor.

Environmental safety companies in Iceland have, up to now, prevented the talk publicly, maybe explaining why the problem stays underexplored. The estimated variety of cats roaming the nation stays a query mark. In Akureyri, in accordance with native legal guidelines, pet house owners have registered solely 200 cats, a fraction of the whole inhabitants. Stronger knowledge helps perceive essentially the most basic questions: by banning cats outdoors, will the inhabitants of birds in Iceland enhance? Consultants are not sure of the reply, since most cats roam inside cities and most birds nest outdoors them. Will Icelanders take pleasure in extra birds of their yard with out cats? Fairly presumably, and that’s when the query comes right down to our values: a 2021 paper in Ecological Economics primarily based on financial knowledge from 26,000 Europeans discovered neighborhood birds make individuals as glad as cash. A ten p.c enhance in hen species within the surroundings raised life satisfaction about 1.53 occasions greater than an analogous proportional rise in earnings. However, we launch the soothing “cuddle chemical”—oxytocin—when petting a cat, the identical enjoyment we get from social bonding with our personal sort. Cat possession can be a confirmed technique for serving to the rising variety of lonely individuals to really feel related.

Ronja was the third phrase my one-year-old son discovered to talk after mama and dudda (baby-Icelandic for pacifier). When the cat disappeared sooner or later in December, the household was devastated: there had been a foul snowstorm, and I had closed the window earlier than going to mattress, assuming the cat was asleep in the lounge. The subsequent morning, there have been paw prints within the snow, getting into circles beneath the shut window. After two days Ronja-less, I started leaving work early to stroll round city, following cat steps by way of the snow, like a cartoon detective, into personal gardens and parks. Twice, I requested householders with an open basement window to go downstairs and test for her. I alerted all neighborhood Fb teams and recruited youngsters to assist me. I started assuming she was lifeless, and was already engaged on my grief.

I like birds, so perhaps Ronja’s loss would depart me freed from guilt. However I additionally love Ronja, and I used to be ecstatic six nights after she went lacking, round 2:00 a.m. when she leaped by way of an open window and strolled into our bed room. She allowed us to greet her with awkward enthusiasm earlier than transferring to her nook of the mattress. So now, like many cat house owners, I exist in a state of cognitive dissonance on the subject of my cat and my surroundings. However I do preserve her inside at night time.