What we put in our bodies—food—is regulated by the Food and Drug Administration and the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
What we put on it—skin care and beauty products—is not.
That could be an issue.
In one 2021 report, scientists tested 231 popular makeup products from the U.S. and Canada and found that more than 100 had Per-and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). These are chemicals that don’t break down and build up in the body over time.
They include perfluorooctanoic acid, which may cause cancer, according to the American Cancer SocietyTrusted Source.
Clean skin goes beyond washing your face.
“Your skin is a living, dynamic organ,” says Nava Greenfield, M.D. of Schweiger Dermatology Group in New York City. “Just like you consider carefully what you put into your mouth, you should take care in what you place on your skin.”
Understanding what’s in your products can help you achieve long-term health that’s more than skin-deep.
Here’s what the science says you should avoid—and what to use instead.
The skin is our largest organ, notes Marianna Blyumin-Karasik, board-certified dermatologist, co-founder of Precision Skin Institute, and founder of Stamina Cosmetics.
The skin has high absorption, “so skin care products that can be absorbed and enter our bloodstream can have detrimental effects on our overall health,” Blyumin-Karasik says.
Some ingredients like synthetic or highly concentrated fragrances or chemicals in personal care products can trigger skin sensitivity, irritation, or a more intense allergy.
In 2020, California became the first state to issue a statewide ban on 24 chemicals, including methylene glycol and formaldehyde.
Other states don’t have these bans, leaving consumers to analyze and interpret labels themselves.
Complicating things, some recommendations to avoid specific ingredients aren’t one-size-fits-all. Different people may have different (or no) reactions to certain ingredients, even if they’re common allergens.
“Aside from real toxins and dangerous chemicals, a list like this will be different for each person,” Greenfield says. “Unfortunately, it’s not all black and white.”
Having an idea of what’s potentially toxic and what’s more likely to cause skin irritation can help you make informed decisions about the products you choose.
From common allergens to potential carcinogens, here are the ingredients Blyumin-Karasik and Greenfield suggest avoiding:
PEGs (polyethylene glycols)
Blyumin-Karasik and Greenfield warn that PEGs are a potential skin irritant.
They’re most often found in lotions, creams, and hair products because they can act as skin conditioners and humectants, a common moisturizing agent.
A small 2021 case studyTrusted Source examined six cases of acute sensitivity to PEGs. However, researchers also noted the allergy was rare.
Methyl and propyl parabens
Blyumin-Karasik notes that methyl and propyl parabens are preservatives with reputations for being hormone disruptors. However, research is mixed.
A 2017 studyTrusted Source on gerbil prostates indicated that methylparaben could disrupt estrogenic and androgenic receptors that might affect the prostate.
Another 2017 studyTrusted Source suggested parabens, including methyl and propyl parabens, posed little health risk. However, researchers noted that parabens could inhibit compounds with anti-estrogenic properties.
The FDATrusted Source wrote in 2022 that it didn’t have enough evidence to warn that parabens affect human health. The American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) reported similarly in 2019, noting that allergic reaction risks were low.
Found in some eye make-up products, lipsticks, and deodorants, aluminum can cause skin irritation, according to Greenfield.
There’s also been discussion as to whether aluminum is a carcinogen, or cancer-causing agent.
A 2015 studyTrusted Source suggested aluminum can increase the migration of breast cancer cells and called for more research.
In 2013, the Cosmetic Ingredient Review said alumina and aluminum hydroxide was safe to put in cosmetics, noting that it doesn’t get absorbed into the skin and less than 1 percent is absorbed orally.
This ingredient is a preservative commonly found in soaps and shampoos and may cause skin irritation or allergies, Blyumin-Karasik explains. Greenfield agrees with avoiding formaldehyde, saying it’s a common irritant.
A 13-year retrospective studyTrusted Source of patch tests published in 2020 indicated that a polymer known as toluene-sulfonamide-formaldehyde resin (R-TSF or TSFR), often used in nail polish, was one of the most common allergens. It’s also known as a carcinogen, but data shows it’s only hazardous if a person inhales a significant amount.
The American Cancer SocietyTrusted Source says formaldehyde in personal care products like shampoos typically contains formaldehyde levels that are “far below hazardous” to health. The organization says keratin hair smoothing treatments can raise indoor air concentration to hazardous levels.
Phthalates are typically used to make sure plastic doesn’t break. They can also be used in fragrances in skin products. Blyumin-Karasik warns they may disrupt hormones.
A 2020 literature reviewTrusted Source indicated that phthalates could lead to:
- altered puberty
- testicular dysgenesis syndrome, a condition affecting semen quality and testicle descent
- increase risk for cancer
- increase risk of male and female fertility issues
- modify the release of hypothalamic, pituitary, and peripheral hormones
A 2018 studyTrusted Source suggested phthalates could lead to pregnancy loss and fertility issues.
However, it’s important to note that neither piece of research above was specific to phthalates in beauty products.
Key West and Hawaii recently banned oxybenozone, which is commonly found in sunscreen. Blyumin-Karasik says it can disrupt hormones and cause allergic reactions.
A 2020 reviewTrusted Source of 29 studies indicated no a link between fertility issues and oxybenzone and called for more research.
However, an older 2016 studyTrusted Source indicated that men with higher levels of benzophenone-type ultraviolet (UV) filter concentrations had lower sperm concentrations.
Avoiding fragranced products and using a mineral-based sunscreen can help avoid harmful chemicals, Blyumin-Karasik says. Looking for preservative-free items can also cut down on risks of irritants and health hazards.
“The main purpose of preservatives is to maintain the integrity of the personal care products,” Blyumin-Karasik says. “The natural alternatives may not attain as long of the shelf-life as the chemical ones, but they’re better for our well-being.”
To clean up your beauty regimen, Blyumin-Karasik suggests looking for products that contain these safer ingredients instead.
Tea tree oil
Blyumin-Karasik suggests using tea tree oil, an essential oil found in shampoos, skin care items, hand sanitizers, and first aid products.
A 2021 studyTrusted Source suggested tea tree oil could help disinfect hands when used in sanitizer.
Instead of PEGs, opt for a humectant with fewer potential side effects. Blyumin-Karasik recommends glycerin.
A 2019 safety assessmentTrusted Source suggested glycerin was safe to use in cosmetic practices.
Coconut oil, or Cocus nucifera, is extracted from the meaty part of a coconut fruit.
Blyumin-Karasik recommends it because it’s moisturizing and can reduce mold growth in skin care products.
A 2022 studyTrusted Source indicated that a coconut oil-based serum combined with deer antler stem cell extract for two weeks could:
- smooth skin
- reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles
- increase collagen density
A 2019 studyTrusted Source indicated virgin coconut oil had anti-inflammatory properties and supported its use in skin care products.
Blyumin-Karasik says elderberry, or Sambucus nigra extract, often found in serums, has “versatile benefits for our skin.”
She notes these benefits include antimicrobial effects and high levels of vitamin C.
Research on elderberry is limited, particularly in topical products. However, a 2019 studyTrusted Source suggested it had anti-aging benefits when ingested as a supplement.
Willow bark extract
Blyumin-Karasik says willow bark, or Salix nigra extract, is an excellent source of skin preservation. She recommends it for its anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties.
“Besides that, willow bark contains a potent salicin ingredient which has gentle exfoliating properties to cleanse pores and reduce skin surface oil,” she says.
A 2019 studyTrusted Source suggested willow bark total extract may have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory benefits.
An older 2010 studyTrusted Source suggested that salicin, which is extracted from white willow bark, may have benefits when applied to the skin topically.